Meningitis is an umbrella term for five kinds of this disorder, each characterized by its own underlying cause. Learn exactly what distinguishes these kinds of meningitis and the measures you can take to prevent or cure them.
Just how much can you understand about meningitis? You might have discovered the disease involves an inflammation of the membranes enclosing the brain and spinal cord, and you might know it may be life-threatening.
And while meningitis is most frequently brought on by bacteria or a virus, do you realize that bodily harm, sickness, and specific medications may also result in the illness? There are in fact five kinds of meningitis — viral, bacterial, parasitic, fungal, and non-infectious — every categorized by the reason for the disease.
Symptoms are similar for every form of meningitis, however, there are a number of differences, states Lorene Cathey, RN, MSN, director of disease prevention in The University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville. The seriousness and treatment of this disorder differs depending on the reason, so identifying what type a individual has is essential so that he can find the ideal treatment.
Here is what you ought to know more about many kinds of meningitis.
Bacterial meningitis is a potentially life-threatening type of the disease which may result in serious complications like brain damage, hearing loss, and finally death if not diagnosed and treated immediately. These germs may spread from person to person through coughing and coughing or saliva transfer through lunch or mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Particular kinds of bacterial meningitis may result from eating food that is contaminated, though occasionally the origin is not understood.
Other symptoms, such as nausea, rash and vomiting, light sensitivity, and confusion might seem, typically in just three to seven times of exposure to disease-causing germs. Bacterial meningitis can be treated with antibiotics, so it is important to get treatment when possible.
“Meningococcal vaccines protect against many kinds of meningococcal disease, though they don’t prevent all situations.” Pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines are recommended for particular age groups and people with specific risk factors, ” she adds. Haemophilus influenza type b, or Hib, vaccination is suggested for all children younger than 5 years old at the U.S., and it’s typically given to babies starting at two months old. “People fully vaccinated against Hib can also require extra dosages, and unimmunized older kids, teens, and adults with specific medical conditions should get Hib,” Cathey states.
Most cases of viral meningitis are brought on by enteroviruses, but other common viruses like measles, mumps, and chicken pox, in addition to some viruses propagate via mosquitos or other insects, may also result in the illness.
Viral meningitis has the very same kinds of symptoms like bacterial meningitis, such as sudden fever, headache, and stiff neck, but it is different as it’s aseptic, meaning bacteria won’t grow in the cerebrospinal fluid. It often resolves by itself, without special therapy, even though it could possibly be treated with antifungal medication. Sometimes, it may be deadly, depending upon factors like the kind of virus causing the disease, the individual’s age, and if or not she has a diminished immune system.
This kind of meningitis may be spread from fecal contamination, typically when appropriate hand washing is not practiced after changing diapers or using the bathroom. To stop viral meningitis, clean your hands thoroughly and frequently, prevent direct contact with somebody who has the disorder, and be certain you’ve been vaccinated against measles, mumps, rubella, and chicken pox.
A parasite named Naegleria fowleri is your origin of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), an extremely rare kind of parasitic meningitis. This kind of the disorder causes a brain disease that develops rapidly — you to 12 times typically, Cathey states — and is generally fatal. Conventional meningitis symptoms seem one to seven times following infection, possibly accompanied by confusion, loss of equilibrium, hallucinations, seizures, and too little attention to your environment.
Naegleria fowleri was discovered all around the world in hot freshwater resources (such as rivers, lakes, and hot springs), dirt, hot water discharged from industrial resources, badly handled swimming pools, and water heaters. The microscopic organism enters the body via the nose and also travels into the brain in which it starts to destroy brain tissue. Parasitic meningitis can’t be moved by person-to-person contact.
Another rare type of meningitis, fungal meningitis, happens when a disease enters the blood. Everyone can receive this kind of the disorder, but individuals with a weakened immune system are at a heightened risk. Fungal meningitis is most frequently caused by inhaling fungal spores from contaminated soil or by bat or bird droppings. Treatment includes long classes of high-dose antifungal medications, usually administered at the hospital via an IV. The kind of fungus and condition of the individual’s immune system ascertain the period of therapy.
Like parasitic and bacterial meningitis, non-infectious meningitis can’t be caught from someone else. It typically happens as the consequence of cancer, lupus, a headache, brain surgery, or by specific medicines.